Tag: Klamath-Siskiyou

Klamath-Siskiyou Native Seeds

Native Seed Germination Chart

(Click on the title to view and download the chart in Excel format.)

 

It can be difficult to find information regarding seed germination for native plant species. Through our own native plant propagation and growing experience, as well as long-term seed germination experimentation, we have developed a seed germination chart for species we often have in our inventory. This chart specifies the pretreatment needs for seed through cold-moist stratification (chilling requirements) or heat treatment, for natural or artificial seed germination, as well as recommendations for planting seed outside for natural seed germination. Germination rates can vary so your own personal experimentation is encouraged!

Common Name Botanical Name Seed Germination Instructions
Vine maple Acer circinatum 30-60 days warm-moist stratification followed by 90-120 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall.
Common yarrow Achillea millefolium No pretreatment required. Sow in fall or spring on or just below the soil surface. Needs warm soil and light to germinate.
Vanillaleaf Achlys triphylla 60 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall to late winter.
Columbia monkshood Aconitum columbianum 60 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall to late winter.
Horse mint Agastache urticifolia 30-60 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall to late winter.
Western joepiweed Ageratina occidentalis No pretreatment required. Sow outside in fall to early spring. Germination may be improved with 30 days cold stratification
California dandelion Agoseris grandiflora No pretreatment required. Sow outside in fall to early spring. Germination may be improved with 30 days cold stratification.
Tapertip onion Allium acuminatum 30-60 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall to late winter.
Pacific mountain onion Allium validum 60-90 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall to late winter.
Menzies’ fiddleneck Amsinckia menziesii 60 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall for best germination.
Sharptooth angelica Angelica arguta 60 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall to late winter.
Woodland madia Ansiocarpus madioides 30-60 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall to late winter.
Western columbine Aquilegia formosa 60 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall to late winter.
California spikenard Aralia californica 90-120 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall for best germination.
Goat’s beard Aruncus dioicus 30-60 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall to late winter. Plant on soil surface or lightly cover. Seed needs light to germinate.
Heartleaf milkweed Asclepias cordifolia 60 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall to early spring.
Narrowleaf milkweed Asclepias fascicularis 60 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall to early spring.
Showy milkweed Asclepias speciosa 60 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall to early spring.
California harebell Asyneuma prenanthoides 60 days cold-moist stratification. Sow in fall to late winter. Sow on soil surface or lightly cover. Seed needs light to germinate.
Deltoid balsamroot Balsamorhiza deltoidea 90 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall.
Tall Oregon grape Berberis (Mahonia) aquifolium 90 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall to late winter.
Cascade Oregon grape Berberis (Mahonia) nervosa 60 days cold-moist stratification. Sow in fall to late winter.
California brome Bromus carinatus No pretreatment required. Sow outside in fall to early spring.
Chinook brome Bromus laevipes No pretreatment required. Sow outside in fall.
Tolmie’s cats ear Calochortus tolmiei 30-60 days cold-moist stratification. Sow in fall to late winter.
Marsh marigold Caltha leptosepala 60-90 days cold-moist stratification. Sow in fall to late winter.
Large camas Camassia leichtlinii 60-90 days cold-moist stratification. Sow in fall to late winter.
Deer brush Ceanothus integerrimus Soak in hot (not boiling) water for 24 hours, then 60-90 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall to late winter.
Birch leaf mountain mahogany Cercocarpus betuloides 60 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall to late winter.
Soaproot Chlorogalum pomeridianum No pretreatment required. Sow outside in fall to early spring.
Fireweed Chamerion angustifolia 60 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall to late winter.
Western redbud Cercis occidentalis Soak in hot (not boiling) water for 24 hours, then 60-90 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall to late winter.
Western clematis Clematis ligusticifolia 30-60 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall to late winter.
Hound’s tongue Cynoglossum grande 30-60 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall to late winter.
Mountain larkspur Delphinium glaucum 90-120 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall.
Meadow larkspur Delphinium nuttallianum 90-120 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall.
Henderson’s shooting star Dodecatheon hendersonii 60-90 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall to late winter.
Squirreltail grass Elymus elymoides No pretreatment required. Sow outside in fall to early spring.
Blue wildrye Elymus glaucus No pretreatment required. Sow outside in fall to early spring.
Capitate sandwort Eremogone congesta 60-90 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall to late winter.
Tall wooly buckwheat Eriogonum elatum 60 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall to late winter.
Arrowleaf buckwheat Eriogonum compositum 60 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall to late winter.
Barestem buckwheat Eriogonum nudum 60 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall to late winter.
Sulphur flower buckwheat Eriogonum umbellatum 60 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall to late winter.
Oregon sunshine Eriophyllum lanatum 30 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall to late winter.
Henderson’s fawn lily Erythronium hendersonii 90 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall.
Scarlet monkey flower Erythranthe (Mimulus) cardinalis No pretreatment required. Sow outside in fall to early spring. Seeds need light to germinate, surface sow.
Yellow seep monkey flower Erythranthe (Mimulus) guttata No pretreatment required. Sow outside in fall to early spring. Seeds need light to germinate, surface sow.
California poppy Eschscholzia californica 30 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall or early spring.
Western goldentop Euthamia occidentalis No pretreatment required. Sow outside in fall to early spring.
California fescue Festuca californica 30 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall or early spring.
Roemer’s fescue Festuca roemeri 30 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall or early spring.
Cascara Frangula purshiana 60-90 days cold-moist stratification. Sow in fall to late winter.
Bluehead gilia Gilia capitata 30 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall.
White rushlily Hastingsia alba 60-90 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall to late winter.
Bigelow’s sneezweed Helenium bigelovii 30 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall to late winter.
Cowparsnip Heracleum maximum 120 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall.
Alum root Heuchera micrantha 60 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall. Seeds need light to germinate, surface sow.
Oceanspray Holodiscus discolor 90-120 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall.
Broad leaved lotus Hosackia crassifolia Soak in hot (not boiling) water for 24 hours, then 60-90 days cold-moist stratification. Sow in fall to late winter.
Scarlet gilia Ipomopsis aggregata 30 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall to early spring.
Red beardtongue Keckiella corymbosa 30 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall or early spring.
Bush beardtongue Keckiella lemmonii 30 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall or early spring.
Bolander’s tarweed Kyhosia bolanderi 30-60 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall to late winter.
Siskiyou lewisia Lewisia cotyledon 30-60 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall to late winter.
Blue wild flax Linum lewisii 30 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall or early spring.
California lomatium Lomatium californicum 60 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall to late winter.
Fernleaf biscuitroot Lomatium dissectum 60 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall.
Bigseed biscuitroot Lomatium macrocarpum 60 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall to late winter.
Nineleaf buscuitroot Lomatium triternatum 60 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall to late winter.
Common lomatium Lomatium utriculatum 60 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall to late winter.
Pink honeysuckle Lonicera hispidula 60-90 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall.
Sickelkeel lupine Lupinus albicaulis Soak in hot (not boiling) water for 24 hours, then 30 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall to early spring.
Silver bush lupine Lupinus albifrons No pretreatment required. Sow outside in fall to early spring.
Velvet lupine Lupinus leucophyllus Soak in hot (not boiling) water for 24 hours, then 30 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall to early spring.
Elegant tarweed Madia elegans No pretreatment required. Sow outside in fall to early spring.
Large false Soloman’s seal Maianthemum racemosum Seed takes two years to germinate. Sow outside in fall. 6 months cold-moist stratification, followed by 4 months warm-moist stratification, followed by another 5 months cold-moist stratification.
Giant blazingstar Mentzelia laevicaulis 60-90 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall.
Coyote mint Monardella odoratissima 30 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall to late winter.
Coyote tobacco Nicotiana attenuata No pretreatment required. Sow outside, or start in a greenhouse in spring.
Indian tobacco Nicotiana quadrivalvis No pretreatment required. Sow outside, or start in a greenhouse in spring.
False turtlehead Nothochelone nemorosa 60-90 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall.
Douglas’ grasswidow Olsynium douglasii 90-120 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall.
Siskiyou Mountains owl’s clover Orthocarpus cuspidatus 90 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall.
Indian warrior Pedicularis densiflora 30 days cold-moist stratification. Sow in fall. Hemiparasite, needs host plant to thrive. Parasitic on members of the heath family, such as manzanita or madrone.
Siskiyou penstemon Penstemon anguineus 60-90 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall to late winter.
Hot rock penstemon Penstemon deustus 60-90 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall to late winter.
Mountain blue penstemon Penstemon laetus 60-90 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall to late winter.
Small flowered penstemon Penstemon procerus 60-90 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall to late winter.
Western sweet coltsfoot Petasites frigidus No pretreatment required. Sow outside in fall to early spring.
Varilieaf phacelia Phacelia heterophylla 30 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall or early spring. Seeds need light to germinate, surface sow.
Tall phacelia Phacelia procera 30 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall. Seeds need light to germinate, surface sow.
Mock orange Philadelphus lewisii 90-120 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall.
Pacific ninebark Physocarpus capitatus 30 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall or early spring.
Hooker’s fairybells Prosartes hookeri 60-90 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall.
Chokecherry Prunus virginiana 90-120 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall.
Bitter cherry Prunus emarginata 90-120 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall.
Golden currant Ribes aureum 90 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall.
Wax currant Ribes cereum 90-120 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall.
Sierra gooseberry Ribes roezlii 90-120 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall.
Sticky currant Ribes viscosissimum 90 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall.
Thimbleberry Rubus parviflorus 30 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall or early spring.
Waxy coneflower Rudbeckia glaucescens 30 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall or early spring.
Western coneflower Rudbeckia occidentalis 30 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall or early spring.
Blue elderberry Sambucus nigra spp. caerulea 60-90 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall.
Pacific blacksnakeroot Sanicula crassicaulis 30-60 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall or early spring.
Lambstongue ragwort Senecio integerrimus 30-60 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall to late winter.
Arrowleaf ragwort Senecio triangularis 30-60 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall or early spring.
Oregon checkermallow Sidalcea oregana 60-90 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall.
Bell catchfly Silene campanulata 30-60 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall to late winter.
West coast Canada goldenrod Solidago elongata No pretreatment required. Sow outside in fall to early spring.
Western mountain ash Sorbus scopulina 90-120 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall.
Douglas’ spiraea Spiraea douglasii 30-60 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall to late winter.
Subalpine spiraea Spiraea splendens 30-60 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall to late winter.
Lemmon’s needlegrass Stipa lemmonii 90 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall.
Claspleaf twistedstalk Streptopus amplexifolius Seed takes two years to germinate. Sow outside in fall. 6 months cold-moist stratification, followed by 4 months warm-moist stratification, followed by another 5 months cold-moist stratification.
Leafybract aster Symphyotrichum foliaceum No pretreatment required. Sow outside in fall to early spring.
Fringe cups Tellima grandiflora 30 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall or early spring.
Western false asphodel Triantha occidentalis 60-90 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall.
Vinegarweed Trichostema lanceolatum 60-90 days cold-moist stratification. Sow in fall to late winter.
California false hellebore Veratrum californicum 30-60 days warm-moist stratification followed by 90-120 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in early fall.
Western verbena Verbena lasiostachys 30-60 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall or early spring.
American vetch Vicia americana No pretreatment required. Sow outside in fall to early spring.
Narrowleaf mule’s ears Wyethia angustifolia 90 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall.
Beargrass Xerophyllum tenax 90-120 days cold-moist stratification. Sow outside in fall.

 

The tiny Siskiyou frittilaria (Frittilaria glauca). Notice the ant on the leaf.
The tiny Siskiyou frittilaria (Frittilaria glauca). Notice the ant on the leaf.
Baker cypress (Cupressus bakeri) is the most northern cypress in North America. It has a range restricted to only northern California and southern Oregon, predominately in the Klamath-Siskiyou Mountains.
Baker cypress (Cupressus bakeri) is the most northern cypress in North America. It has a range restricted to only northern California and southern Oregon, predominately in the Klamath-Siskiyou Mountains.

Tucked into the borderlands of northern California and southern Oregon, the Klamath-Siskiyou Mountains are a place of raw, rugged beauty renowned for their biodiversity. The region is home to more species of conifer —32 of them—than any other temperate conifer forest in North America. The Klamath-Siskiyou ranks second in North America in terms of endemism (organisms found nowhere else in the world), and third in total species richness.

Shown is one of the largest Baker cypress (Cupressus bakeri) trees in the world. This grove of large trees is located at Miller Lake in the Siskiyou Mountains.
Shown is one of the largest Baker cypress (Cupressus bakeri) trees in the world. This grove of large trees is located at Miller Lake in the Siskiyou Mountains.

The region rises abruptly, creating a jumbled mass of rugged and diverse mountains, jagged peaks, wild rivers, and deep forest. Ancient and complex bedrock defines the Klamath-Siskiyou region as a whole. This seemingly haphazard patchwork of rock types creates and supports an unusually diverse and contrasting mosaic of habitat types, microclimates and plant diversity.

Umbrella plant or Indian rhubarb (Darmera peltatum) flower, emerging prior to the leaves in spring.
Umbrella plant or Indian rhubarb (Darmera peltatum) flower, emerging prior to the large leaves in spring.
Umbrella plant  or Indian rhubarb (Darmera peltatum) on Goff Creek, a tributary to the Klamath River.
Umbrella plant or Indian rhubarb (Darmera peltatum) on Goff Creek, a tributary to the Klamath River.

The following is a description of the Klamath-Siskiyou by the World Wildlife Fund. The Klamath-Siskiyou Region is on WWF’s “Global 200: The Most Outstanding and Representative Areas of Biodiversity.” For their complete description please visit the link below. This description was written in the 1990s, but is still relevant to this day.

https://www.worldwildlife.org/ecoregions/na0516

“Temperate Coniferous Forest: Located in northwestern California and southwestern Oregon, complex terrain, geology, climate, and biogeographic history have created one of the Earth’s most extraordinary expressions of temperate biodiversity in the Klamath and Siskiyou Mountains. Although well known among biologists, few North Americans realize the uniqueness and importance of the species and communities in this ecoregion. Indeed, logging, mining, road building, and grazing continue to be intensive and pervasive threats to this area.

Mountain monardella (Monardella odoratissima)
Mountain monardella (Monardella odoratissima) on Abney Butte on the Siskiyou Crest, looking toward Cook ‘n Green Butte.
Horsemint (Agastache urticifolia) in the large meadows of the Silver Fork Basin, the headwaters of Elliott Creek in the Siskiyou Mountains.
Horsemint (Agastache urticifolia) in the large meadows of the Silver Fork Basin, the headwaters of Elliott Creek in the Siskiyou Mountains.

Description
Biological Distinctiveness
The Klamath-Siskiyou ecoregion is considered a global center of biodiversity (Wallace 1982), an IUCN Area of Global Botanical Significance (1 of 7 in North America), and is proposed as a World Heritage Site and UNESCO Biosphere Reserve (Vance-Borland et al. 1995). The biodiversity of these rugged coastal mountains of northwestern California and southwestern Oregon has garnered this acclaim because the region harbors one of the four richest temperate coniferous forests in the world (along with the Southeastern Conifer forests of North America, forests of Sichuan, China, and the forests of the Primorye region of the Russian Far East), with complex biogeographic patterns, high endemism, and unusual community assemblages. A variety of factors contribute to the region’s extraordinary living wealth. The region escaped extensive glaciation during recent ice ages, providing both a refuge for numerous taxa and long periods of relatively favorable conditions for species to adapt to specialized conditions. Shifts in climate over time have helped make this ecoregion a junction and transition zone for several major biotas, namely those of the Great Basin, the Oregon Coast Range, the Cascades Range, the Sierra Nevada, the California Central Valley, and Coastal Province of Northern California. Elements from all of these zones are currently present in the ecoregion’s communities. Temperate conifer tree species richness reaches a global maximum in the Klamath-Siskiyous with 30 species, including 7 endemics, and alpha diversity (single-site) measured at 17 species within a single square mile (2.59 km2) at one locality (Vance-Borland et al. 1995). Overall, around 3,500 plant species are known from the region, with many habitat specialists (including 90 serpentine specialists) and local endemics.

Henderson's horkelia (Horkelia hendersonii) on the Siskiyou Crest.
Henderson’s horkelia (Horkelia hendersonii), an endemic species, on the Siskiyou Crest.

The great heterogeneity of the region’s biodiveristy is due to the area’s rugged terrain, very complex geology and soils (giving the region the name “the Klamath Knot” [A noteworthy book titled The Klamath Knot was written by David Rains Wallace in 1983]), and strong gradients in moisture decreasing away from the coast (e.g., more than300 cm (120in)/annum to less than 50 cm (20 in)/annum). Habitats are varied and range from wet coastal temperate rainforests to moist inland forests dominated by Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), Pinus ponderosa, and P. lambertiana mixed with a variety of other conifers and hardwoods (e.g., Chamaecyparis lawsoniana, Lithocarpus densiflora, Taxus brevifolia, and Quercus chrysolepis); drier oak forests and savannas with Quercus garryana and Q. kelloggii; serpentine formations with well-developed sclerophyllous shrubs; higher elevation forests with Douglas fir, Tsuga mertensiana, Abies concolor and Abies magnifica; alpine grasslands on the higher peaks; and cranberry and pitcher plant bogs. Many species and communities have adapted to very narrow bands of environmental conditions or to very specific soils such as serpentine outcrops. Local endemism is quite pronounced with numerous species restricted to single mountains, watersheds, or even single habitat patches, tributary streambanks, or springs (e.g., herbaceous plants, salamanders, carabid beetles, land snails, see Olson 1991). Such fine-grained and complex distribution patterns means that any losses of native forests or habitats in this ecoregion can

significantly contribute to species extinction. Several of the only known localities for endemic harvestman, spiders, land snails, and other invertebrates have been heavily altered or lost through logging within the last decade, and the current status of these species is unknown (Olson 1991). Unfortunately, many invertebrate species with distribution patterns and habitat preferences that make them prone to extinction, such as old growth specialist species, are rarely recognized or listed as federal endangered species. Indeed, 83 species of Pacific Northwest freshwater mussels and land snails with extensive documentation of their endangerment were denied federal listing by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in 1994 (J. Belsky, pers. comm. 1994).

Rivers and streams of the Klamath-Siskiyou region support a distinctive fish fauna, including nine species of native salmonids (salmon and trout), and several endemic or near-endemic species such as the tui chub (Gila bicolor), the Klamath small-scale sucker (Catostomus rimiculus), and the coastrange sculpin (Cottus aleuticus). Many unusual aquatic invertebrates are also occur in the region.” -WWF

Snow plant (Sarcodes sanguinea) in the Klamath Mountains.
Snow plant (Sarcodes sanguinea) in the Klamath Mountains.
Gentner's frittilaria (Frittilaria gentneri) in the foothills of the Applegate Valley.
Gentner’s frittilaria (Frittilaria gentneri), an endemic species,  in the foothills of the Applegate Valley.
Klamath-Siskiyou Native Seeds